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Dosage form- Definition, Benefits, Classifications | imdip

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What is Dosage forms, advantages of dosage forms, need of dosage form

Pharmaceutical dosage forms are therapeutical end product that is created for the end consumer to use.

Definition of Dosage form:

Dosage Form means the physical form or the vehicle by which drug molecules are delivered to sites of action within the body to get therapeutic value.
Example: Tablet is a solid dosage form.

Benefits of Dosage form:

A pharmaceutical dosage form is an entity that is administered to patients so that they receive an effective dose of a drug. Some common examples are tablets, capsules, suppositories, injections, suspensions, and transdermal patches. Besides providing the mechanism for the safe and convenient delivery of accurate dosage, pharmaceutical dosage forms are needed for the following additional reasons:
  • Some drug substances have a bitter, salty, or unpleasant taste or odor in this case capsules, coated tablets, and flavored syrup are used to mask this taste.
  • Dosage forms play an important role to target the drug at the desired site of action.
  • To protect the drug substance from the destructive influence of atmospheric oxygen or humidity (coated tablets).
  • To protect the drug substance from the destructive influence of gastric acid after oral administration (enteric-coated tablets).
  • To provide liquid preparations of substances that are either insoluble or unstable in the desired vehicle (suspensions).
  • To provide rate-controlled drug action (various controlled-release tablets, capsules, and suspensions).
  • To provide site-specific and local drug delivery (e.g., rectal and vaginal suppositories).

Classification Dosage form:

Basically, there are 4 types of dosage forms.
  • Solid Dosage Form
  • Semi-solid Dosage Form
  • Liquid Dosage Form
  • Gaseous Dosage Form

According to the route of administration, there are
  • Oral Dosage Form
  • Topical Dosage Form
  • Rectal Dosage Form
  • Parenteral Dosage Form
  • Vaginal Dosage Form
  • Inhaled Dosage Form
  • Ophthalmic Dosage Form
  • Otic Dosage Form
  • Nasal Dosage Form

Different types of dosage forms

Solid Dosage Form:

Solid dosage forms are one type of dosage form, It's solid in nature and contains one or more drugs for therapeutic effects and excipients like binding agents, sweetening agents, coloring agents, etc.

Example of solid dosage form:
Tablets, capsules, granules, sachets, powders, powder for inhalation, etc.

Learn: Solid Dosage Form | Definition, Types, Excipient

Semi-solid Dosage Form:

Semisolid dosage forms are that types of dosage forms that contain both solid and liquid. It is used for therapeutic, protective, or cosmetic functions. It may be applied to the skin, nasal, vaginal, or rectal cavity. Normally used for topical or external application.

Examples of semi-solid dosage forms:
Ointments, pastes, cream, plasters, gels, and rigid foams.

Learn: Semi-solid dosage form | Definition, advantage, disadvantage, ingredients

Liquid Dosage Form:

The liquid form of a drug dose for administration or consumption. The route of administration may be oral, intravenous, intramuscular, cutaneous, subcutaneous, etc.

Examples of semi-solid dosage forms: Syrup, mixture, linctuses, elixirs, parenteral preparations, etc.

Learn: Liquid dosage form | Definition, classification, advantage, disadvantage, preparation, additives ingredients

Gaseous Dosage Form:

Gaseous dosage forms are gas in nature. In the form of gas, therapeutically active medicaments are present in it. It may be applied for internal as well as external purposes like skin, nose, mouth, etc.

Examples of semi-solid dosage forms: Sprays, vaporizers, Aerosols, nebulizers, Inhalers, etc.

Learn: Aerosol-Inhaler |Types of Inhaler | Details on inhalers

The dosage form according to the route of administration:

Types of dosage form according to the route of administration

Oral Dosage Forms

Oral dosage forms are those dosage forms that are taken or administered through the mouth. Like tablets, capsules, syrup, suspension, lozenge, pastilles, etc.

Topical Dosage Form

Topical dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered or used on the topical areas (like- skin, and mucus membranes).
Examples like emulsions, ointments, creams, gels, pastes, dusting powders, transdermal patches, liniments, lotion, collodion, paints, pressurized dispensers (aerosol sprays), etc.


Rectal Dosage Form

Rectal dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered through the rectum. Examples Like Suppository, Enema, etc.

Parenteral Dosage Form

Parenteral dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered through the vein, muscle, arteries, subcutaneous, etc.
Examples like intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, intraarterial injection, subcutaneous injection, etc.

Vaginal Dosage Form

Vaginal dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered through the vagina. Examples like pessary, vaginal ring, douche, and intrauterine device.

Inhaled Dosage Form

Inhaled dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered through the nose or mouth. Examples like an inhaler, powder for inhalation, nebulizer, solution for inhalation, etc.

Ophthalmic Dosage Form

Ophthalmic dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered through the eyes. Like eye drops, ophthalmic ointments, and gels.

Otic Dosage Form

Otic dosage forms are those dosage forms that are administered through the ears. Like ear drops.

Nasal Dosage Form

These are those dosage forms that are applied on the nose trills. Examples like nasal drops and sprays.

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