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Solid Dosage Form | Definition,Types, Excipient

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Solid Dosage Form

Dosage form means a physical form by which drug molecules are delivered into the site of action. The solid dosage forms are the most commonly used dosage form because of the stability and ease of mass production. tablets capsules, sugar-coated tablets, powders, granules, sachets, etc.

Pharmacists and pharmacy students should know the detailed information of solid dosage form. Pharmaceutics is the subject where this information is given. Let know about the solid dosage form.

There are different types of dosage forms.
1. Solid dosage form,
2. Liquid dosage form,
3. Semi-solid dosage form,
4. Gas dosage form.

Solid dosage form by, Solid Dosage Form, Dosage form, Pharmaceutics, ablets, capsules, granules, sachets, powders, dry powder inhalers and chewable,

Definition of solid dosage form:

The solid dosage forms, which are solid in nature which contain one or more drugs for therapeutic effects and excipients like Binders, Sweeteners, coloring agents, etc.

Example of solid dosage form: 

Tablets, capsules, granules, sachets, powders, dry powder inhalers, and chewable.

Advantages of solid dosage form:

  • More stable than other dosage forms.
  • Easy to handle.
  • More accurate of the dosage form.
  • No preservation required.

Disadvantages of solid dosage form:

  • Expensive Machines.
  • Tough to swallow for kids and patients in sleeping condition.

Types of solid dosage form, solid dosage form classification.

Types of solid dosage form:

We can divide solid dosage form into 2 parts according to the amount of the dose-

1. Unit Dose
  • Tablets
  • Capsules
  • Granules
  • Sachets
  • Lozenges
  • Pills
  • Dry powder inhaler
  • Chewables
2. Bulk Dose
  • Powder (External and Internal)

Tablet: Tablets are compressed solid dosage form contain therapeutic active ingredients and excipients.

Capsules: Capsules are solid dosage forms where the therapeutic active ingredient granules are enclosed within a hard or soft soluble shell.

Granules: Granules are solid dosage forms made up of agglomeration of smaller particles of powders.

Sachets: Sachets are solid dosage forms containing therapeutic ingredients. Small size spherical granules packed into a small bag or pouch packet.

Lozenges: Lozenges are the solid dosage form that dissolves slowly into the mouth. Lozenges contain a drug along with flavoring and sweetening agents.

Chewables: Chewables are the solid dosage form that 

Excipients needed for solid dosage form:

Excipients are those materials which are used in every dosage form. But it doesn't have any therapeutic effects or side effects. Here we are discussing those excipients which are important for solid dosage form formulation.

1. Binding Agents: The role of binders or binding agent is to make the plasticity in the tablet formulation. So it helps to maintain the inter-particle bonding strength and to achieve mechanical strength and sometimes for the drug release properties.
  • Natural polymers: Starch, gelatin, acacia, tragacanth.
  • Synthetic polymer: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, Polyethylene glycol (PEG).
  • Sugar: Glucose, Sucrose, Sorbitol

2. Coating Agents: This is used in tablet preparation. The role of the coating agent is protecting the drug from environmental moisture, light, or the acidic environment of the stomach and it also masks the bitter taste of many drugs.
  • Suger Coating
  • Film Coating
  • Enteric coating

3. Preservatives: Preservatives are basically used to protect the formulation from the attack of microorganisms. Such as bacterial growth, fungus growth, etc.
Examples of preservative: Phenol, parabens, aryl and alkyl acids, etc.

4. Coloring Agents: Coloring agents are used to giving an attractive outlook for the patients. 
Example of natural colors: Turmeric, Titanium Dioxide, etc.
Examples of Synthetic colors: Erythrosine, Tartrazine, etc.

5. Sweetening Agents: Sweetening agents are used in basically chewable tablets. To cover up the unpleasant taste of the tablet or any pharmaceutical formulation.
Example of sweetening agents: Sucrose, fructose, etc.

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